Select 4 questions:
1. Based on Anselm’s ontological argument, what is the nature of the contradiction in the state of mind of an atheist? Gaunilo claims that, for Anselm the conceivability of any concept X logically implies its actual existence is that a correct interpretation of Anselm? explain your answer why is the ontological argument considered as a prior theistic argument?
2. Considering that God, for Pascal is infinitely incomprehensible what then is the role of Pascal’s wager in the formation of a belief in God’s existence? Does theoretical reason have a role in the formation of such a belief? give an account of Pascal psychology of belief or his understanding of the belief-formation process.
3. What is the significance of the stories about the ship owner and the religious islanders to Clifford’s argument? What is wrong with the actions and beliefs of the ship owner and the agitators in the island? Why is belief important according to Clifford? For Clifford, why is wrongness attributable to a belief (not just an action)? Why is it the case that even Uneducated people have the duty to believe according to evidence? For Clifford is it permissible to believe a true belief without sufficient evidence? Explain your answer.
4. Give an account of Aquinas argument for the existence of a necessary being and an account of Aquinas is argument for the existence of the first efficient cause. Based on Aquinas first argument from motion give an account of an Aristotelian proof for each of the following claims: “everything that is moved is moved by another” and “it is not possible to proceed to infinity” how did Aquinas prove God’s existence in his second argument from motion?
5. Give an account of Paley’s analogical version of the teleological argument. Give a brief account of the fine-tuning teleological argument. How do current scientific theories (e.g evolution and multiverse) challenge the teleological argument?
Select 2 questions:
1. What are the differences between Augustinian and Irenaean theodicy? Which of the two kinds of theodicy does Hick favor? Why does he favor one over the other? What is Hick’s soul-making theodicy?
2. Give an account of the problem of evil as an argument for Atheism. What is the difference between the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil? Why do many philosophers think that the logical problem of evil is a weaker version than the evidential problem of evil?