Competencies of the Training and Development Professional 


David M. Kopp Adrian Dominican School of Education at

Barry University in Miami, Florida

David M. Kopp

Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning

Editor in Chief, AVP: Steve Wainwright

Sponsoring Editors: Mireille Yanow and Cheryl Cechvala

Development Editors: Carrie Brandt and Susan Walker

Assistant Editor: Kristle Maglunob

Senior Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sanchez-Sullivan

Production Editor: Catherine Morris

Copyeditor: LSF Editorial

Cover Design: Jelena Mirkovic

Printing Services: Bordeaux

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Permission Editor: Sheri Gilbert

Cover Image: Robert Chruchill/iStock/Thinkstock, monkeybusinessimages/iStock/Thinkstock, Jetta Productions/ Iconica/Getty Images

ISBN-10: 1621781739

ISBN-13: 978-1-62178-173-8

Copyright © 2014 Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

All rights reserved.

GRANT OF PERMISSION TO PRINT: The copyright owner of this material hereby grants the holder of this publica- tion the right to print these materials for personal use. The holder of this material may print the materials herein for personal use only. Any print, reprint, reproduction, or distribution of these materials for commercial use without the express written consent of the copyright owner constitutes a violation of the U.S. Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810, as amended.

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning 1

Chapter 2 Performance Management 29

Chapter 3 Introduction to ADDIE: (A)nalyzing Training Needs 59

Chapter 4 (D)esigning Effective Training 89

Chapter 5 (D)evelopment—Putting Theory Into Practice 119

Chapter 6 (I)mplementation—Execution 147

Chapter 7 (E)valuation of Training and Development 167

Chapter 8 Transfer of Training 195

Chapter 9 Employee and Organizational Development 223

Chapter 10 The Ethics of HRD and Corporate Social Responsibility 253

Glossary 279

References 297

Brief Contents



Dedication­ xi

About­the­Author xiii

Acknowledgments xiv

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning 1

1.1  Defining Human Resource Development 3

1.2  Distinguishing Between Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management 4

1.3  The Advent of Human Resource Development 6 Training­in­the­Late­1800s­and­Early­1900s 6 World­Wars­Change­Jobs­and­Influence­Training 8 1950s­Workplace­Training­Developments 9 The­1960s­and­1970s:­The­Introduction­of­Computer-Based­Training 9 The­1980s­and­1990s:­The­Emergence­of­Intellectual­Capital 10 21st-Century­Training­and­Today’s­Influences­on­HRD 11

1.4  HRD Consensus and Debate 12 HRD­Consensus 12 HRD­Debate 13 Performance-Based­View­of­HRD 14 Developmental­View­of­HRD 16

1.5  Competencies of the Training and Development Professional 16 Certifications­in­Training­and­Development 18

Summary and Resources 20


Chapter 2 Performance Management 29

2.1  Perspectives in Workplace Performance 31 Performance­as­a­Natural­Outcome­of­Human­Activity 31 Performance­as­Necessary­for­Economic­Activity 32 Performance­as­an­Instrument­of­Organizational­Oppression 32

2.2  A Formula for Job Performance 32 Breaking­Down­the­Performance­Formula 34 Job Aids—Cost-Effective Way to Improve Knowledge and Skills Immediately 36 FLOW­and­SVVE 41

2.3  Quality of Performance: Expertise, Competence, and Incompetence 44

2.4  New Employees: On-Boarding Job Performance 46

2.5  Poor Performance Analysis—Managing the Gap 48 Managing­Performance­Gaps­With­Attribution­Analysis 50­ Returning­to­Opening­Case—Job­Performance 50

Summary and Resources 51

Chapter 3 Introduction to ADDIE: (A)nalyzing Training Needs 59

3.1  Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation 61 Where­Is­ADDIE­in­the­HRD­System? 62

3.2  Analysis—Defining the Needs 63

3.3  Levels of Needs Assessment 65 Organizational­Analysis 65 Job-Task­Analysis 68

3.4  Other Data Collection Methods 73 Individual­or­Person­Analysis 75 Why­Are­Needs­Assessments­Not­Done­More­Often? 79

3.5  Prioritizing the Training Needs 79

Summary and Resources 81


Chapter 4 (D)esigning Effective Training 89

4.1  Developing Training Objectives 91

4.2  Setting and Delivery Method Considerations 94 Train­the­Trainer 98 Preparing­Your­Training­Environment­Room 98

4.3  Individual Trainee Differences 100 Self-Directed­Trainees 102 Locus­of­Control 103

4.4  Training Design Sequencing 103 WPW­Learning­Model­in­Training­Design 104

4.5  Preparing Lesson Plan 106

4.6  Designing Learning Assessment 110

Summary and Resources 111

Chapter 5 (D)evelopment—Putting Theory Into Practice 119

5.1  Creating Training Materials 121 Trainer­and­Participant­Assessment­Instruments 122 Materials­Development­Process 125

5.2  Choosing Appropriate Instructional Method and Media 127 Training­Methods 128 E-learning 134 Selecting­Training­Media 136

5.3  Training Setting 138 Seating­Arrangements­Conducive­to­Learning 139

5.4  Editorial Process and Technical Review 140 Content­Review 140 Design­Review 140 Organizational­Review 141 Editorial­Review 141

Summary and Resources 141


Chapter 6 (I)mplementation—Execution 147

6.1  Beta and Pilot Testing of Training 148 Outcomes­of­Testing 149

6.2  Trainer KSAs 151 The­Anatomy­of­the­Excellent­Trainer 151

6.3  Barriers to Implementing Training 155 E-learning­Readiness:­Potential­Barriers 156

6.4  Outsourcing Training 157 Outsourcing:­A­Rising­Trend 157

Summary and Resources 160

Chapter 7 (E)valuation of Training and Development  167

7.1  Formative Evaluation 169

7.2  Summative Evaluation 170

7.3  Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Evaluation Framework 171 Level­1—Reaction:­Did­They­Like­It? 172 Level­2—Learning:­Did­They­Learn­It? 173 Level­3—Behavior:­Did­They­Apply­It? 175 Level­4—Results:­Did­the­Organization­Benefit? 175 Linking­Kirkpatrick­Outcome­Levels­to­the­Performance­Formula 177

7.4  Return on Investment 179 Hard­Data­Versus­Soft­Data 181 Data­Gathering­Methods 181

7.5  Evaluation: Essential, but Often Neglected 183 Sampling­of­Evaluation­Models 184

Summary and Resources 187


Chapter 8 Transfer of Training 195

8.1  A Framework for Training Transfer 197 Trainee­Characteristics 197 Training­Design 199 Work­Environment 202 On­the­Quality­of­Transfer:­Negative­and­Positive 204

8.2  Accountability for Training Transfer 205 The­Who,­What,­and­When­of­Transfer 206

8.3  Barriers to Training Transfer 208 Transfer­of­Training­as­Change­Management 209

8.4  Transfer and the Learning Organization 211 Organizational­Learning­and­the­Learning­Organization 213

Summary and Resources 214

Chapter 9 Employee and Organizational Development 223

9.1  Development and Strategic HRD 225 Development­for­Competitive­Advantage 227

9.2  Employee Development 228 Aspects­of­Employee­Development 229 Employee­Development­and­Mentoring 232

9.3  Leading Employee Development 234 D1­With­S1 235 D2­With­S2 236 D3­With­S3 236 D4­With­S4 237

9.4  Process of Career Development 237 Stages­of­Life­and­Career­Development 238 Career­Management 239


9.5  Organizational Development 242 A­Model­for­Organizational­Change 243 Dimensions­to­Organizational­Change 245

Summary and Resources 246

Chapter 10 ­The Ethics of HRD and Corporate Social Responsibility 253

10.1  Ethical Human Resource Development 255 Different­Ethical­Frameworks 256 Globalization­Means­Global­HRD 258

10.2  HRD and Social Responsibility 259 Nurturing­Corporate­Social­Responsibility­Within­the­Organization 261 “Walking­the­Walk”­of­Social­Responsibility 264

10.3  CSR and Social Justice Within the Organization 264 Access­to­Training:­The­Glass­Ceiling­of­Training­and­Development 265 Training­Considerations­for­Speakers­of­Other­Languages 267

10.4  Work–Life Balance 267 Workaholism—Performance,­but­at­What­Cost? 270

10.5  Critical HRD and Lessons Learned From the Social History of Training 272

Summary and Resources 273

Glossary 279

References 297

Sandra Huzenman: my unfailing

supporter and my North; from the first

keystroke to my last breath, te amo


Dr. David M. Kopp is an associate dean and pro- fessor of human resource development in the Adrian Dominican School of Education at Barry University­in­Miami,­Florida.­He­has­taught­and­ developed courses in training and development for more than 15 years. Dr. Kopp is one of the few academics who have earned the CPLP cre- dential­(Certified­Professional­in­Learning­and­ Performance).

Kopp­has­worked­with­both­profit­and­nonprofit­ organizations for more than 20 years, consult- ing and writing on leadership, strategic plan- ning, organizational change, and performance improvement.­He­regularly­hosts­a­community­ affairs television program in Florida, Community Crossroads, and recently spoke about human resource development in Macedonia at the nation’s largest public and private universities.

Dr. Kopp was Dr. Shaquille O’Neal’s doctoral advisor­and­is­also­an­expert­on­the­Beatles.

About the Author

The author would like to acknowledge the many people who were involved in the development­of­this­text.­Terry­Piper,­Lucia­Rhee,­Isaac­Levi,­Katie­Desiderio,­Valerie­ Dahan, Joanne Ittilucksatit, and Barry, Marilyn, Zak, Nik, Isaac, and Ash. Special thanks are due to Mireille Yanow and Cheryl Cechvala, sponsoring editors; Carrie Brandt and Susan Walker, development editors; Kristle Maglunob, assistant editor; Nicole Sanchez-Sullivan, senior editorial assistant; Catherine Morris, production editor; and Jermaine Jackson, video editor. Thanks also to the following Ashford faculty and advi- sors for their helpful advice and suggestions: Charles Nichols, Adrienne Osborne, and Maja Zelihic.

Finally, the author would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable feed- back and insight:



C. Allen Gorman, East Tennessee State University



Chris Zirkle, Ohio State University



Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning provides an introduction to the essentials of training theory and its practical applications in—and implications for—the business and management environment. Students will learn not only the func- tions, duties, and responsibilities of training through every phase of the training pro- cess, but also about the social responsibility of training and development. A primary objective­of­this­text­is­for­organizational­leaders­to­understand­the­means,­manner,­and­ methods of employee training, as well as how a trained and developed workforce affects and drives organizational performance.

Textbook Features To enhance, enrich, and enliven student learning, Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning includes several features:

Case Studies feature scenarios that illustrate key concepts through real-world situa- tions. Students are challenged to analyze and solve problems by weighing the multiple variables of human resource development decisions.

Assess Your Learning: Critical Reflection questions prompt students to critically examine­the­information­presented­in­the­chapter­and­apply­their­knowledge.­

Video lectures provide additional instruction in core concepts to human resource development.

Pretests and Posttests prompt students to answer multiple-choice questions that pro- vide real-time feedback on their understanding of chapter concepts.