Q1. One reason that we cannot use English orthography to reason about the sounds of natural languages is that not all the sounds of the world’s languages appear in English. Give an example of a sound (represented by way of an IPA symbol) that does not appear in English, together with the name of the language where your sound appears and a word from that language where this sound appears.
Q2. In fact, we cannot even use English orthography to talk about the sounds of English. The reason is that the mapping between English orthography and the sounds of English (as represented in the IPA) is a many-to-many map.
a. the same letter corresponds to multiple sounds.
Give an example of this situation — to do this, you should give a letter that in different words is mapped to different sounds. Give the words in English orthography and in IPA to make your point.
b. the same IPA symbol corresponds to multiple letters.
Give an example of this situation — to do this, you should give an IPA symbol that in different words is mapped to different letters. Give the words in IPA and in English orthography to make your point.
Q3. 2a and 2b are enough to show that we have a many-many map. But the situation is even more dire. Sometimes there are letters in particular words that go unpronounced. Give an example of a word where this happens.