What is the null hypothesis and research hypothesis for the study below?What level of measurement are used in correlation?
Introduction: Brief description of the study including the purpose and importance of the research question being asked.
A group of researchers carried out a research to investigate if skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light in Colorado, United States. If the idea was true, it is evident that the conclusion would be that people with a high exposure to UV light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer. Clearly, over the years, scientists have repeatedly argued that the effect of ultraviolet rays can influence or result to skin cancer. However, there has not been enough evidence until these researchers resolved to carry out a test. The purpose of the study was to determine whether skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light or rays. In that case, the purpose of the research questions is to get precise answers based on the effect of light or rays to skin. The questions are important because they will assist researchers to carry out their research hypothesis (Martin & Bridgmon, 2012).
What is the null hypothesis? What is the research hypothesis?
Null hypothesis can be described as the prediction that there will be no effect observed during a study. The reason why researchers develop a null hypothesis is to make sure that their research can be proven as false. In that case, whenever researchers are conducting a research such as the one described above, they will always create a null hypothesis. In general, research typically includes hypothesis but there will always be a null hypothesis that create a null hypothesis which acts as counterbalance to ensure that there is a way to disprove researchers’ prediction. Conversely, Research hypothesis is a statement created by researchers when they speculate upon the result of an experiment or research. This is the main factor that guides a research. Many researchers describe research hypothesis to direct their thought process towards the solution of the research problems or sub-problems (Martin & Bridgmon, 2012).
Participants/Sampling Method: Describe your sampling method. What is your sample size? Who is your population of interest? How representative is the sample of the population under study?
Sampling methods are mainly used to select a sample from within the entire or general population. Appropriate sampling methods are significant for eliminating bias in the selection procedure. In the research study, the method used for sampling was simple random sampling. The researchers randomly selected individuals from the region of Colorado in order to determine whether sun rays or light had any effect on their skins. The people selected for experiment included both young and old both male and female. My sample size is a population of 30,000 people subjected under the experiment whether sun rays has any effect on their skins related to skin cancer. Based on the research, my population of interest were the old people because they has higher symptoms of cancer showing that the middle aged to young people who looked to more healthy. The population under study has experienced issues related to cancer for many years. Therefore, the main purpose was to figure out whether it was the ultraviolet light had effect on skin or not (Khan, 2011).
Data Analysis: Describe the statistical analysis (e.g., what are the assumptions, what information does a correlation give us, etc). (HINT: This should either be a correlation/regression depending on your research question). What is your IV(s)? What is your DV? What level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) are your IV(s) and DV? What is your alpha level?
Data analysis is the critical part during a research study. This is the part that researchers analyze the data that they collected from the field of research or study. There are several assumptions made by the researchers. The correlation of the research question clearly shows that there is doubt that skin cancer can be as a result of the ultraviolet rays or light. Therefore, ultraviolet light might cause skin cancer. My IV is causes, and might, while my DVs are skin and cancer. The level of measurement on my IVs is normal because participants were placed according to their common trait. The Alpha level was Type I because the findings supported the alternative hypothesis. The level of measurement for my DVs ordinal scale because there was all information captured in the normal scale and data was ranked from the lowest to the highest. The major reason is that the null hypothesis was true (Khan, 2011).
Results & Discussion: Did you reject the null hypothesis? What information did you use to lead you to your conclusion? Was your value greater than or less than your alpha? NOTE: You can just make up numbers, but include your made-up p value.
I did not reject the null hypothesis because it was important in this research study. During the research with the group of participants, we carried out the study in order to determine whether the ultraviolet causes skin cancer. Together with the researchers, the information that led me and the group to a conclusion was the reaction that the skin has when exposed to the light. We noticed that specific participants especially the old would turn red if exposed in the sun for long duration of time (Freedman, Pisani, & Purves, 2007). Therefore, my value was greater than that of my alpha. This can be presented as:
P=95% are not having skin cancer as a result of ultraviolet light
Alpha=5% are having cancer as a result of ultraviolet light
Therefore:95% > 5%